Wednesday, August 26, 2020

The Harris Matrix Tool Used to Comprehend the Archaeological Past

The Harris Matrix Tool Used to Comprehend the Archeological Past The Harris Matrix (or Harris-Winchester network) is a device created between 1969-1973 by Bermudian paleologist Edward Cecil Harris to aid the assessment and translation of the stratigraphy of archeological locales. The Harris framework is explicitly for the ID of both normal and social occasions which make up a destinations history. The development procedure of a Harris framework urges the client to order the different stores in an archeological site as speaking to occasions in the lifecycle of that site. A finished Harris Matrix is a schematic that plainly outlines the historical backdrop of an archeological site, in light of the archeologists translation of the stratigraphy found in the unearthings. The History of an Archeological Site Every single archeological site are palimpsests, in other words, the final product of a progression of occasions, including social occasions (a house was constructed, a capacity pit was burrowed, a field was planted, the house was relinquished or torn down) and characteristic occasions (a flood or volcanic ejection secured the site, the house burned to the ground, natural materials rotted). At the point when the prehistorian strolls onto a site, proof of each one of those occasions is there in some structure. The archeologists work is to distinguish and record the proof from those eventsâ if the site and its segments are to be comprehended. Thus, that documentation gives a manual for the setting of the antiquities found at the site. Setting implies that antiquities recuperated from the site mean something else on the off chance that they are found in the development establishments of the house as opposed to in the consumed cellar. On the off chance that a potsherd was found inside an establishment channel, it originates before the utilization of the house; on the off chance that it was found in the cellar, maybe just truly a couple of centimeters from the establishment channel and perhaps at a similar level, it postdates the development and might be in truth from after the house was deserted. Utilizing a Harris framework permits you to arrange the order of a site, and to attach a specific setting to a specific occasion. Characterizing Stratigraphic Units to Context Archeological locales are ordinarily delved in square removal units, and in levels, regardless of whether subjective (in 5 or 10 cm [2-4 inch] levels) or (if conceivable) common levels, following the noticeable store lines. Data about each level that is exhumed is recorded, including profundity beneath surface and volume of soil uncovered; ancient rarities recouped (which could incorporate minute plant stays found in the research facility); soil type, shading and surface; and numerous different things too. By recognizing the settings of a site, the excavator can allot Level 12 in removal unit 36N-10E to the establishment channel, and Level 12 in unearthing unit 36N-9E to the setting inside the storm cellar. Harris Categories Harris perceived three sorts of connections between unitsby which he implied gatherings of levels which share a similar setting: Units which have no direct stratigraphic correlationUnits which are in superpositionUnits which are related as parts of a once-entire store or highlight The lattice likewise necessitates that you recognize qualities of those units: Units which are certain; in other words, those that speak to the upbuild of material to a siteNegative units; units, for example, pits or establishment channels which included the expulsion of soilInterfaces between those units History of the Harris Matrix Harris designed his grid in the late 1960s and mid 1970s during post-removal investigation of site records from the 1960s uncovering at Winchester, Hampshire in the UK. His first distribution was in June 1979, the primary version of The Principles of Archeological Stratigraphy. Initially intended for use on urban noteworthy locales (which stratigraphy will in general be frightfully mind boggling and cluttered), the Harris Matrix is relevant to any archeological site and has additionally been utilized to archive changes in verifiable design and rock workmanship. In spite of the fact that there are some business programming programs that help with building a Harris network, Harris himself utilized no extraordinary apparatuses other than a bit of plain gridded papera Microsoft Excel sheet would work similarly also. Harris frameworks might be gathered in the field as the classicist is recording the stratigraphy in her field notes, or in the research facility, working from notes, photographs, and maps. Sources Barros Garcã ­a JMB. 2004. The Use of the Harris Matrix to Document the Layers Removed during the Cleaning of Painted Surfaces. Studies in Conservation 49(4):245-258.Harris EC. 2014. Standards of Archeological Stratigraphy. London: Academic Press.Harris EC, Brown III MR, and Brown GJ, editors. 2014. Practices in Archeological Stratigraphy: Elsevier.Higginbotham E. 1985. Exhuming Techniques in Historical Archeology. Australian Journal of Historical Archeology 3:8-14.Pearce DG. 2010. The Harris Matrix method in the development of relative orders of rock artistic creations in South Africa. The South African Archeological Bulletin 65(192):148-153.Russell T. 2012. Nobody said it would be simple. Requesting San works of art utilizing the Harris framework: perilously erroneous? An answer to David Pearce. The South African Archeological Bulletin 67(196):267-272.Traxler Ch, and Neubauer W. 2008. The Harris Matrix arranger, another instrument to oversee archeological stratigraphy. In: Ioannid es M, Addison A, Georgopoulos An, and Kalisperis L, editors. Advanced Heritage, Proceedings of the fourteenth International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia:Â Cyprus. p 13-20. Wheeler K. 2000. Hypothetical and Methodological Considerations for Excavating Privies. Verifiable Archeology 34:3-19.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Lives of the Saints Essay

In Shakespeare’s Hamlet and Nino Ricci’s Lives of the Saints both exhibit various dreams of ladies. Contrasting feeble and uncertain ladies in Hamlet as to solid and autonomous ladies in Lives of the Saints. Ophelia in Hamlet is described commonly as a powerless ladies particularly in the statement, â€Å"frailty thy name is woman.† She is totally subject to her dad and demonstrates her reliance when she acts brutal to Hamlet. Which conflicts with her actual emotions toward Hamlet. Afterwords Ophelia consents to not see Hamlet any longer, â€Å" I will comply with my lord.† Which shows Polonious’s power over his little girl. Ophelia’s activities show that she will do anything to satisfy her dad, in any event, making an a disregard for one's own needs which she doesn’t concur with. Ophelia’s want to satisfy her dad drives her to be utilized as a manikin all together for the King and Polonious to keep an eye on Hamlet, Ophelia’s eagerness to keep an eye on an individual she genuinely cherishes, gives her actual nature toward her dad. In any event, when Hamlet pesters Ophelia and advises her to go to a cloister, Ophelia had the powerlessness to protect herself. At the point when her dad passes on, Ophelia is left without anyone else, with nobody to give her direction. Rather than attempting to proceed onward with her life, she requires her sibling trusting he will have an arrangement for her, â€Å"My sibling will know about it thus I thank you for your great counsel.† Polonious’s was indispensable lastly Ophelia understands this â€Å" I would give you a few violets, however they shriveled all when my dad died.†The hugeness of the violets are that they represent loyalty and they all kicked the bucket since she felt pointless without her dad. Ophelia’s passing is in aftereffect of her reliance and shortcoming of character.Overall, Ophelia goes distraught in light of the fact that she has no situation in the public arena. Men have consistently bossed her around, utilized her, pulling her psyche toward each path. She put her confidence in one individual and never settled on her own choices. Like Ophelia is Gertrude. She is likewise described by the statement, â€Å"frailty thy name is woman.† Gertrude relies upon her significant other. Gertrude yearning for the consideration that she loses when her better half passes on, rapidly weds Claudius, her spouses sibling. Shakespeare shows that ladies have no spine and our frail. As though they couldn't live with out others, men particularly. Nino Ricci exhibits an entire distinctive side of ladies, he shows that ladies are solid and free. The character that delineates these characteristics is Cristina, she brought up her youngster Vittorio alone. In contrast to the ladies in Hamlet, Cristina didn’t need a man to assist her with bringing up her youngster or to get past life. At the point when her child gets beat up at school, she doesn’t simply disregard it. She makes physical move about the circumstance † I’ll make her compensation for this, Vittorio, you’ll see, by the blood of Christ I’ll make her compensation. The cleaning at certain tears in her own eyes, she took me unexpectedly by the hand and walked me out the entryway into the road. (107).† Cristina is rebelliously not a sucker and goes to bat for what she puts stock in. She lives in a town where the ladies remain at home and the men turn out to be in the field and everybody had faith in weird notions. Cristina was against her village’s desires and conflicted with what everybody thought. Cristina is straightforward and confident. She has a women's activist perspective and is vey certain about it, she says â€Å" He’s most likely laid down with each prostitute in America at this point, yet for me its a disrespect. (154)†. Cristina is clarifying about her significant other Mario yet it is additionally an announcement all in all about men. Folks can circumvent going from young lady to young lady to young lady and it is anything but an issue. Yet, on the off chance that a ladies were to do something very similar, regardless of whether it was simply with one person its a flat out disrespect. This book was situated in 1960 and a similar sentence could app ly to 2012. Likewise has noteworthiness to the content since she engaged in extramarital relations and the entire town discovered, which then they treated her with appall. Cristina likewise states â€Å"Women have had their countenances up their rear ends for a really long time, they let their men go around like goats and afterward they’re glad in the event that they don’t return home and beat them! (154)† It is belittling that ladies are viewed as prostitutes when they have illicit relationships, particularly when its said by other ladies. They’re abusing their own sex when saying it. She at long last chooses to move away and says her last words to the town â€Å" You are the ones who are dead,not me, on the grounds that not one of you recognizes being free and to settle on a decision, and I go to God that he completely destroys this town and every one of its stupidities! (184)† Most ladies wouldn’t have talked there mind, particularly a lady like Ophelia or Gertrude. Cristina continually battled with her dad and consistently differ â€Å"Long contentions were continued day by day among kitchen and room, pressure floating around.(154).† She at last got tired of living with her dad and getting his point of view she said â€Å" Then to damnation with every one of you! I’ll go to Rome, Naples, anywhere.† She had the mental fortitude and solidarity to leave her dad and start a real existence elsewhere, mean while Ophelia couldn’t last several days with out her dad and killed her self. Nino Ricci shows ladies to be frank, free and incredible. Toward the finish of every story the two ladies characters kick the bucket. The thing that matters is the manner in which they carried on with their life. Cristina at any rate carried on with her life, going to bat for what she have confidence in and having her own assessment. Concerning Ophelia carried on a lie, as she was a cowardly simpleton continually doing what others advised her to do and had a disgraceful passing. Shakespeare and Nino Ricci may have totally different vision on ladies and yet they are both precise perspectives.

Wednesday, August 19, 2020

How to Start a Persuasive Essay

How to Start a Persuasive Essay The purpose of a persuasive essay is to assure the readers of a certain thought, usually it is a thought that you are assured of. The paper may be grounded on the fact about that you have your personal viewpoint. No matter what subject you select for the paper, the important thing is to know how to start a persuasive essay. Definition This type of work conveys a certain perspective and shows verifier to confirm that prospect. This essay may be grounded on emotion and it is not necessary to consider the counter argument. No matter if you’re crafting the paper for school task or write it to send to some organization, you must add strong confirmation to make the paper more efficient. Think over the theme If you must craft the paper for school, then you already know what you are going to write about. However, if this paper is intended for some agency or for the city major, you have to brainstorm the subject carefully. Constrict the theme in order to make it more specific. Concentrate on a particular aspect of the theme. Find the angle After constricting the subject of the paper it is time to decide what you are going to say about the theme. Think of the reasons why you are assure of this theme and how this particular issue can be solved. This can be the beginning of the thesis, or the general argument. This type of paper should effect the emotions of the audience so think of the emotional aspect of the work. ? Thinking over points for the paper with someone is useful because you can share your thoughts and get a piece of advice to broaden them. ? If you want to write about testing cosmetics on animals the angle should be that it must be forbidden as it’s cruel. Think over confirmatory averment Make a roll of various reasons you can provide to confirm the thesis statement. Do not worry if something seems foolish to you, just record them. You may find them suitable when you continue working on the paper. They may be emotional and influence the moral senses of the audience. It is not necessary for this type of essay to contain substantiated data. Make sure you have selected the persuasive averment as it is not possible to describe all examples of averment. Create a draft of the thesis statement The thesis statement or the general argument that will be presented in the paper comes out of the angle you select for the work. It must give answers to such questions as ?what? and ?how? of the statement. The first question represents the subject of the paper while the second one represents the angle. Remember that the general argument can change while you are working on the paper. So it is just a draft so far. To help yourself understand how to start off a persuasive essay, create an outline to arrange the ideas and texturize the work. You may use Roman numbers or common numerals for the paper. You also need to write brief clauses to record the thoughts. ? You may utilize a common frame with five parts, with one section for the introduction, several sections for several confirmatory points and one section with a conclusion. However, the work may be longer if you conduct the research that requires bigger amount of information. Think of the audience In the beginning of a persuasive essay decide who will be the audience. People are different and something may be convincing for ones, and not convincing for the others. That is why it is important to know exactly whom your paper will be addressed to. Apparently, the tutor will be the main reader, but think who else may consider the argument persuasive ? If you write about harmful food in schools, your approaches can vary depending on the audience you want to persuade. You may address the paper to the school administrators and in this case you may justify the need for healthy food as it influences the school performance. If you address the paper to the parents, you may write about the health of their kids and costs of the treatment caused by unhealthy meal. Prove your rightness After considering the audience it is time to select one side. Be sure in your rightness and be ready to defend your viewpoint. To do this you must conduct a compelling research. ? You need authoritative information to back the position you have chosen. ? There should be stats and facts taken from reliable sources. ? Study both sides of the issue to be able to defend your points. Be informed about the problem You should be apprized about the problem of the paper. There are various types of intellectual aspect you must know about. There can be economic or scientific aspect. ? Try to predict the opposition and be ready to answer it. ? Consider of the points about the problem where can be a fellow feeling- with which points you can agree. Work systematically and you will succeed.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Comparing Aristotle And David Hume - 1156 Words

There are two significant empiricists I’m going to focus on, Aristotle and David Hume. Specifically, the focus is on their ethics: what those ethics are, how they differ from each other, and which is superior. Superiority will be determined by the philosophy’s usefulness—whether the epitome of a philosophy’s virtue is attainable by man; and how conducive the philosophy is to human happiness. In both of these respects, Aristotle is superior to Hume. To Aristotle, ethics is not an exact science, it’s ruled by broad generalizations that work most of the time and are found with those of experience, the men of practical wisdom (Nicomachean Ethics, 1094b15-1095a10). We don’t need a focused study in the sciences to understand the good, all one needs is a proper understanding of how the external aspects of life: friendship, pleasure, honor, and wealth operate in concert. No aspects of friendship, pleasure, honor, and wealth ought to be practiced too much (excess) or too little (deficient); moral virtue is action performed between two extremes (Nic. Ethics, 1106b5-25). And it is by consultation that one may find the middle ground between excess and deficiency, The Golden Mean (Nic. Ethics, 1097b5-20; Nic. Ethics, 1104a10-25). Virtue is, by definition, the excellent performance of an object’s function (Nic. Ethics, 1097b25-30). A thing’s function is determined by eliminating every ability that isn’t exclusive to what it is to be that thing (Nic. Ethics, 1097b30-1098a5). 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Wednesday, May 13, 2020

How Awareness Is Crucial For L2 Development During Second...

Introduction Understanding if the role of awareness is crucial for L2 development in second language or foreign language acquisition research has been a highly debated topic. While there are many researchers who claim that awareness is not necessary for L2 uptake, a majority of research shows a positive trend that awareness plays a huge role in SL and FL uptake (Leow, 2000). According to Leow’s (2000) research, awareness is a necessary tool for L2 data to be taken in and processed, and that no learning would happen without awareness. In a previous study conducted by Leow, he determined that awareness can be categorized based on three characteristics: cognitive change, meta-awareness, and morphological rule formation (Leow, 2002). There†¦show more content†¦A fundamental concept behind language learning is through the understanding of Long’s Interaction hypothesis, which proposes that second language learning is aided by interactional processes because of the ro le of interaction in connecting â€Å"input, internal learner capacities, particularly selective attention, and output in productive ways† (Mackey, 2006). Feedback and interaction help result in modified output which is also helpful in language learning. Different varieties of interactions in SL/FL classroom settings are facilitated through form-focused instruction (Mackey, 2006). The feedback received from focusing on form is in response to learner errors during meaning focused communication (Mackey, 2006). Recasts and negotiation are used as forms when learners have comprehension or production errors. By narrowing the focus of language learning to certain problem areas, language learners will be prompted to pay more attention to linguistic forms (Mackey, 2006). When examining the research behind the cognitive processes in second language learning, attention and awareness are two key processes that aid in L2 development through interaction- as mentioned previously. â€Å" Attention allows learners to notice a gap between what they produce or know and what is produced by the speakers of the L2, and the perception of the gap or mismatch can lead to grammar restructuring† (Mackey, 2006). In order for attention and awareness to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Last Dance Chapter One Free Essays

It is Palmer who makes the first contact, toward the end of September. He tells Cynthia on the telephone that he’s had a transatlantic call from Norman Zimmer, who’s producing a musical based on Jenny’s Room, is she familiar with . . We will write a custom essay sample on The Last Dance Chapter One or any similar topic only for you Order Now . ? â€Å"Yes, he’s been in touch,† Cynthia says. â€Å"I hate to bother you this way,† he says, â€Å"but from what I understand, the project may be stalled because of your father’s intransigence.† â€Å"Yes, I know.† â€Å"It does seem a shame, doesn’t it?† he says. â€Å"All these people who’d stand to earn a little money.† â€Å"I know,† Cynthia says. â€Å"Couldn’t you talk with him?† â€Å"I have,† she says. â€Å"He won’t budge.† â€Å"It does seem a pity.† â€Å"He’s protecting Jessica, you see.† â€Å"Who’s that?† â€Å"Jessica Miles. The woman who wrote the original play. He feels she wouldn’t have wanted the musical done again.† â€Å"Really? Why’s that?† 263 I3d McBain â€Å"Because it was so awful.† â€Å"Oh, I don’t think so, do youl I’ve read my grandfather’s book, and I’ve also heard the songs. It’s really quite good, you know. Besides, they’re having new songs written, and a new book, and—well, it’s truly a shame. Because I think it has a really good shot, you know. I think we can all become quite rich, actually. If it’s done.† There is a crackling on the line. She tries to visualize London. She has never been there. She imagines chimney pots and cobblestoned streets. She imagines men with soot-stained collars and women in long hour-glass gowns. She imagines Big Ben chiming the hour, regattas on the Thames. She imagines all these things. And imagines going there one day. â€Å"Couldn’t you please talk with him again?† Palmer says. It is she who makes the next call, sometime early in October. He has just come home from work, it is seven o’clock there in London, only two in the afternoon here in America. He tells her he works for â€Å"the last of the publishers in Bedford Square,† a line she surmises he has used often before. In fact, there is something about the way he speaks that makes everything sound studied and prepared, as if he has learned a part and is merely acting it. A lack of spontaneity, she supposes, something that makes whatever he says seem artificial and rehearsed, as if there is nothing of substance behind the words. â€Å"Have you seen him again?† he asks. â€Å"Several times,† she says. â€Å"And?† â€Å"Dead end.† â€Å"Mmm.† â€Å"He won’t listen to reason. He says the play is a sacred trust. . .† â€Å"Nonsense.† â€Å"It’s what he believes.† 264 The Last Dance â€Å"She must have written it in the year dot.† â€Å"Nineteen twenty-three.† â€Å"Norman tells me it’s bloody awful.† â€Å"My father thinks it’s simply wonderful.† â€Å"Well, as the old maid said when she kissed the cow . . .† â€Å"It’s a shame this had to come along just now, though. The opportunity, I mean. To have the musical revived.† â€Å"How do you mean?† â€Å"Well †¦ ten years from now would have been so much better.† â€Å"I don’t under . . .† â€Å"Never mind, I shouldn’t have said that.† â€Å"I’m sorry, I still don’t . . .† â€Å"It’s just . . . my father isn’t in the best of health, you see.† â€Å"That’s too bad.† â€Å"And 7 certainly don’t have the same problems he has.† â€Å"Problems? What . . . ?† â€Å"With the play. With it being done as a musical. I have no emotional ties to Jessica Miles, you see. I never even met the woman. What I’m saying is I don’t give a damn about her play. In fact, I’d love to see the musical revived.† â€Å"But what’s ten years from now got to †¦ ?† â€Å"My father’s leaving the rights to me.† â€Å"Oh?† â€Å"To her play. When he dies. It’s in his will.† â€Å"I see.† â€Å"Yes.† There was a long silence. â€Å"But† she said. â€Å"It isn’t ten years from now, is it?† â€Å"No, it isn’t,† Palmer says. 265 Ed McBain â€Å"It’s now,† she says. â€Å"Yes,† he says. â€Å"So it is.† He calls her again on the eighteenth of October. It is midnight here in America, he tells her it’s five a.m. there in London, but he hasn’t been able to sleep. â€Å"I’ve been thinking a lot about your father,† he says. â€Å"Me, too,† she says. â€Å"It seems such a pity he won’t let go of those rights, doesn’t it? Forgive me, but have you made your position absolutely clear to him? Have you told him your feelings about having this musical done?† â€Å"Oh, yes, a thousand times.† â€Å"I mean †¦ he must realize, don’t you imagine, that the moment he’s passed on †¦ forgive me †¦ you’ll do bloody well what you like with the play. Doesn’t he realize that?† â€Å"I’m sure he does.† â€Å"It does seem unfair, doesn’t it?† â€Å"It does.† â€Å"Especially since he’s in bad health.† â€Å"Two heart attacks.† â€Å"You’d think he’d hand over the play immediately, why wouldn’t he? With his blessings. Here you are, Cynthia, do with it as you wish.† â€Å"His only child,† Cynthia said. â€Å"One would think so.† â€Å"But he won’t.† â€Å"Well, when they get to be a certain age . . .† â€Å"It isn’t that. He’s just a stubborn old fool. Sometimes I wish . . .† She lets the sentence trail. He waits. â€Å"Sometimes I wish he’d die tomorrow,† she says. There is another silence. â€Å"I’m sure you don’t mean that,† he says. 266 The Last Dance â€Å"I suppose not.† â€Å"I’m sure you don’t.† â€Å"But I do,† she says. There is a Jamaican named Charles Colworthy who works in the mail room with Palmer, and he knows another Jamaican named Delroy Lewis, who knows yet another Jamaican named John Bridges, who by all accounts is what they call a â€Å"Yardie,† which Palmer explains is British slang for any young Jamaican male involved in violence and drugs. â€Å"I wouldn’t want him hurt,† Cynthia says at once. â€Å"Of course not.† â€Å"You said violence.† â€Å"He’s assured me it will be painless.† â€Å"You’ve met him?† â€Å"Several times.† â€Å"What’s his name?† â€Å"John Bridges. He’s quite ready to do it for us. If you still want to go ahead with it.† â€Å"I’ve given it a lot of thought.† â€Å"So have I.† â€Å"It does seem the right thing, doesn’t it, Gerry?† â€Å"Yes.† There is a long silence. It all seems to be happening too quickly. â€Å"When . . . when would he do it?† â€Å"Sometime before the end of the month. He’ll need an introduction. You’d have to arrange that.† â€Å"An introduction?† â€Å"To your father.† â€Å"Is he black?† â€Å"Yes. But very light skinned.† â€Å"I don’t know any black people, you see.† â€Å"Very pale eyes,† Palmer says. â€Å"A lovely smile. 267 Ed McBain All you need do is introduce him. He’ll take care of the rest.† â€Å"It’s just that I don’t know any black people.† â€Å"Well . . .† â€Å"I wouldn’t know what to say.† â€Å"Just say he’s a friend of yours from London.† â€Å"I’ve never been to London.† â€Å"A friend of a friend, you could say. Who’ll be there for a few days. Who you wanted your father to meet. Is what you could say.† â€Å"Why would anyone want to meet my father?† â€Å"You could say he once worked in a hospital here. Just as your father did. That would give them something in common. I’ll give you the name of a hospital here in London.† â€Å"I’ve never introduced my father to anyone in my life.† â€Å"It would just be to put him off guard.† â€Å"He’d be suspicious.† â€Å"Just someone you’d like him to meet. A nurse. Just as your father was.† â€Å"He won’t hurt him, will he?† â€Å"No, no, you needn’t worry.† â€Å"When did you say it would be?† â€Å"Well, he’ll come as soon as we authorize it. He’ll want half of his fee beforehand, half after it’s done.† â€Å"How much did he say?† â€Å"Five thousand.† â€Å"Is that a lot?† â€Å"I think it’s reasonable. Dollars, that is. Not pounds.† â€Å"I wouldn’t want him hurt,† she says again. â€Å"No, he won’t be.† â€Å"Well.† â€Å"But I have to let him know.† â€Å"What do you think we should do?† â€Å"I think we should go ahead with it. Twenty-five 268 The Last Dance hundred dollars is a lot of money to me, but I look upon this as a serious investment. . .† â€Å"Yes.† â€Å". . . an opportunity to advance myself. I can’t speak for you, of course . . . but. . .I’ve never really had very much in my life, Cynthia. I work in the post room, I don’t get invited to very many balls at Windsor. If this show is a hit, everything would change for me. My life would become . . . well . . . glamorous.† â€Å"Yes,† she said. â€Å"I think we should do it,† he said. â€Å"I truly do.† â€Å"Well then . . .† â€Å"What I’ll do, if you agree, I’ll give John my half of the fee just before he leaves London, and you can pay him the rest when he’s done it. There in America. Afterward. Would you be happy with that?† â€Å"I guess so.† â€Å"Shall I call him then?† â€Å"Well . . .† â€Å"Tell him we’re going ahead with it?† â€Å"Yes.† Now, sitting in the lieutenant’s office with her lawyer and the detectives, she lowers her eyes and says, â€Å"John was very charming. He and my father hit it off right away. But he caused me a lot of trouble later. Because he said it would look like an accident, and it didn’t.† Gerald Palmer called the British Consulate the moment the cops told him what charges they were bringing against him. The consul who came over was named Geoffrey Holden, a somewhat portly man in his mid-forties, stroking a bristly mustache that made him look like a cavalry colonel. He took off his heavy overcoat and hung it on a corner rack. Under it, he was wearing a somber gray suit with a vest and a bright yellow tie. He 269 Ed McBain told Palmer this was his first DBN of the week, which letters he jovially explained stood for Distressed British National. â€Å"Murder, eh?† he said. â€Å"Who’d you kill?† â€Å"I haven’t killed anyone† Palmer said. â€Å"Don’t be a bloody fool.† â€Å"Let me explain how American law works,† Holden said. â€Å"If you actually hired someone to kill someone else, then you’re as guilty as the person pulling the trigger. Murder for hire is first-degree murder, and the penalty is death by lethal injection. They use Valium. A massive dose that stops the heart. Conspiracy to commit murder is another A-felony. If you did either or both of these things . . .† â€Å"I didn’t.† â€Å"I was about to say you’d be in very deep trouble. If you did these things. Which you say you didn’t.† â€Å"That’s right.† â€Å"Being British is no excuse, by the way. It doesn’t entitle you to immunity.† â€Å"I don’t need immunity. I haven’t done anything.† â€Å"Well, good then. D’you know anyone named John Bridges?† â€Å"No.† â€Å"They seem to think you know him.† â€Å"I don’t.† â€Å"How about a man named Charles Colworthy?† Palmer’s eyes opened wide. â€Å"Supposed to work with you at Martins and Grenville. Good publishers, eh? D’you know him?† Palmer was thinking it over. â€Å"The way they have it,† Holden said, â€Å"Colworthy knows someone named Delroy Lewis, who put you in touch with this Bridges chap to whom you and Cynthia Keating together paid five thousand dollars to kill her father. But that isn’t so, is it?† 270 The Last Dance â€Å"Well, I know Colworthy, yes. But . . .† â€Å"Ah, you do?† â€Å"Yes. We work together in the post room. But I certainly didn’t hire . . .† â€Å"That’s good. I’ll just tell them they’ve made a mistake.† â€Å"Where’d they get those names, anyway?† â€Å"From the woman.† â€Å"What woman?† â€Å"Cynthia Keating,† Holden said, and hooked his thumbs into his vest pockets. â€Å"She’s ratted you out.† Palmer looked at him. â€Å"But if you had nothing to do with this . . .† â€Å"Just a minute. What do you mean? Just because she gave them the name of someone I work with . . .† â€Å"The other man as well. Delroy Lewis. The one leading directly to Bridges. Who killed her father.† â€Å"Well, the only one / know is Charlie. He’s the one I work with. I may have mentioned his name to her. In casual conversation. If so, she must have contacted him on her own.† â€Å"Ah,† Holden said, and nodded. â€Å"To ask if he might know anyone who’d help kill her father, is that it?† â€Å"Well, I †¦ I’m sure I don’t know what she asked him.† , â€Å"Called London to arrange his murder, is that how you see it?† â€Å"I don’t see it any way at all. I’m merely trying to explain . . .† â€Å"Yes, that you, personally, had nothing to do with this.† â€Å"Nothing whatever.† â€Å"So Mrs Keating is lying to them. Has lied to them, in fact. She’s accepted a deal, you see. They’ve dropped the conspiracy charge and lowered the murder charge to second degree. Twenty to life, with a recommendation 271 Ed McBain for parole.â€Å" Holden paused. †They might even offer you the same deal. Then again, perhaps not.† Palmer looked at him. â€Å"Because of the related murder.† Palmer kept looking at him. â€Å"They seem to think you did that one personally. The old lady. Martha Coleridge. I have no idea where she fits into the scheme of things, but apparently she was threatening a plagiarism suit. Do you know the woman I mean?† â€Å"Yes,† Palmer said. â€Å"That would constitute a second count of first-degree murder,† Holden said, and stroked his mustache. â€Å"So I doubt if they’d offer you the same deal, after all.† â€Å"I’m not looking for a deal.† â€Å"Why should you be? You haven’t done anything.† â€Å"That’s right.† â€Å"I’ll just tell them to forget it.† â€Å"Of course. They have no proof.† â€Å"Well, they have the woman’s confession. Which implicates you, of course. And our chaps may get something more from Bridges, if ever they find him. They’re looking for him now, apparently. In Euston. He lives in Euston.† Palmer fell silent again. â€Å"You won’t be granted bail, you realize,† Holden said. â€Å"You’re a foreigner implicated in murder, no one’s going to risk your running. In fact, till the dust settles one way or another, they’ll want your passport.† He sighed heavily, said, â€Å"Well, I’ll see about finding a lawyer for you,† and went to the corner where he’d hung his overcoat. Shrugging into it, buttoning it, his back to Palmer, he said, â€Å"You wouldn’t possibly have anything to †¦ offer them, would you?† â€Å"How do you mean?† Holden turned toward him. 272 The Last Dance â€Å"Well,† he said, â€Å"I must tell you, with the woman’s confession, they have more than enough for an indictment. It’ll go worse for you if they catch up with the Jamaican and flip him as well, but even so they’ve got a quite decent case.† â€Å"But I haven’t done anything.† â€Å"Right. Keep forgetting that. Sorry. Let me talk to them.† He opened the door, hesitated, turned to Palmer again, and said, â€Å"You wouldn’t know anything about this little black girl who got stabbed up in Diamondback, would you?† Palmer merely looked at him. â€Å"Althea Cleary? Because they like to tidy things up, you see. If you can tell them anything about that murder . . . they’re not trying to implicate you in it, by the way, they seem to think the Jamaican did that one all on his own. Got into some sort of argument with the girl, lost his temper. Whatever.† His voice lowered. â€Å"But if he mentioned anything about it to you . . . perhaps before he went back to London †¦ it might be worth a deal, hm?† Palmer said nothing. His voice almost a whisper, Holden said, â€Å"He’s just a Yardie, y’know.† Palme’r sat as still as a stone. â€Å"Well, I suppose not,† Holden said. It suddenly occurred to him that the man was simply very stupid. He sighed again, and went out of the room. In the squadroom, they were speculating about what might have happened to Althea Cleary. â€Å"She takes the Jamaican back to her apartment,† Parker suggested. â€Å"He drops the rope in her drink, figures he’s home free. But while he’s waiting for it to take effect, 273 Ed McBam she casually mentions she’s a working girl and this is gonna cost him two bills. He’s offended because he’s never had to pay for it in his life, male or female. So he stabs her.† â€Å"That’s possible,† Brown said, â€Å"but you’re forgetting something.† â€Å"What’s that?† â€Å"He’s gay.† â€Å"He’s bi.† â€Å"He thinks he’s bi.† â€Å"He wouldn’ta been there if he wasn’t bi,† Parker insisted. â€Å"He gets into the apartment,† Brown said, undaunted, â€Å"drops the pills, and starts moving on her. Trouble is he’s gay. She doesn’t excite him. He can’t perform. So he loses his temper and jukes her.† â€Å"Well, that’s a possibility,† Meyer said, â€Å"but something else could’ve happened, too.† â€Å"What’s that?† â€Å"Bridges drops the pills, right? Five minutes or so, the girl starts feeling funny. She accuses him of having put something in her drink. He panics, grabs a knife from the counter, lets her have it.† â€Å"Yeah, maybe,† Kling said, â€Å"but here’s what / think happened. He gets in the apartment . . .† â€Å"Who’s for pizza?† Parker asked. â€Å"They profile a Yardie as someone who enters the country carrying a forged or stolen British passport,† Carella said. â€Å"Usually—but not necessarily—he’s a black man from Jamaica, somewhere between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five. He’s either got a record already . . .† â€Å"Does Bridges have one?† Byrnes asked. â€Å"Nobody by that name in their files. They said he may be a new kid on the block, there’s a constant flow. Most of 274 The Last Dance them are in the drug trade. Getting rope would’ve been a walk in the park for him.† â€Å"Is he wanted for anything?† â€Å"Not by the Brits. Not so far, anyway.† â€Å"Give him time,† Byrnes said. â€Å"Meanwhile, he’s running around London someplace.† â€Å"Or Manchester.† â€Å"Or wherever. Actually, we don’t need him, Pete. Nellie says the overt act is enough.† â€Å"Conspiracy and the overt act, yes.† â€Å"Which she’s already got.† â€Å"So let the Queen’s mother worry,† Byrnes said. Ollie felt very nervous, like a teenager about to ask for a first date. He dialed the number on the card she’d given him, and let the phone ring three, four, five . . . â€Å"Hello?† â€Å"Miss Hobson?† he said. â€Å"Yes?† â€Å"This is Detective Weeks. We talked about piano lessons, do you remember?† â€Å"No. Detective whoT â€Å"Weeks. Oliver Wendell Weeks. I was investigating the murder of Althea Cleary, do you remember? Big Ollie, they sometimes call me,† he said, which was a lie. â€Å"I wanted to learn five songs, remember?† â€Å"Oh. Yes,† she said. â€Å"I still do.† â€Å"I see,† she said. â€Å"I got a list we can pick from,† he said. â€Å"Did you find him?† â€Å"Who do you mean, Miss Hobson?† â€Å"Whoever killed Althea.† â€Å"He’s in London just now. We’re leaving it to the 275 Ed McBain bobbies there, they’re supposed to be very good. When can we start, Miss Hobson?† â€Å"That depends on which songs you want to learn.† â€Å"Oh, they’re easy ones, don’t worry.† â€Å"That’s so reassuring,† she said drily. â€Å"But which ones are they exactly?† â€Å"Guess,† he said, and grinned into the mouthpiece. They had no idea they were in the middle of a race riot until it was full upon them. Until that moment, they’d been peacefully watching television and drifting off to sleep, Kling knowing he was due back in the squadroom at eight tomorrow, Sharyn knowing her day would start at about the same time in her office at 24 Rankin Plaza, neither anticipating an explosion, each surprised when it came. A panel of talking heads was offering its collective opinion on the war, the election, the wedding, the crash, the trial, the disaster, the game, the whatever because in America, it wasn’t enough merely to present the news, you then had to have half a dozen commentators parading their thoughts on what the news had just been all about. Over the background din, Kling was telling Sharyn there’d been an extraordinary number of people informing on other people in this case they’d just wrapped, a veritable chorus of rats singing to whoever would listen, when all at once a blond woman on the panel said something about the â€Å"so-called blue wall of silence,† and Sharyn said, â€Å"Shhh,† and someone else on the panel, a black man, shouted that the blue wall of silence wouldn’t be holding in the Milagros case if the victim had been white, and someone else, a white man, shouted, â€Å"This poor victim you’re talking about is a murdererl† and Kling said, â€Å"Milagros is one of the guys I mean,† and Sharyn said â€Å"Shhh† again, when all he’d 276 The Last Dance wanted to say was that Hector Milagros had been given up by Maxie Blaine who’d been given up by Betty Young in a case virtually defined by perpetual snitchery. â€Å"You don’t know whether those men who went in there were white or black!† someone on the panel shouted. â€Å"You don’t even know if they were actually copsl† someone else shouted. â€Å"They were cops and they were whitel† â€Å"I’ll bet they were,† someone else said, but the voice wasn’t coming from the television set, it was coming from the pillow next to Kling’s. He turned to look at her. The blonde on television very calmly said, â€Å"I do not believe that any police officer in this city would maintain silence in the face of such a brutal beating. The police . . .† â€Å"Oh, come off it,† Sharyn said. â€Å". . . simply don’t know who went in there, that’s all. If they knew . . .† On the television set, the black man said, â€Å"The guy who let them in knows.† â€Å"Every cop in this city knows,† Sharyn said. â€Å"I don’t,† Kling said. And now there was a veritable Babel of voices pouring from the television set in a deluge of conflicting invective that rose higher and higher in volume and passion. â€Å"Instead of maintaining their ridiculous posture of. . .† â€Å"There are black cops, too, you know. I don’t see any of them . . .† â€Å"Would you come forward if †¦ ?† â€Å"You’re asking them to be rats.† â€Å"It’s not informing if the person †¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Milagros was in custody!† â€Å"He’s a criminal!† â€Å"So are the cops who beat him up!† 277 Ed McBam â€Å"A murderer!† â€Å". . . almost killed him!† â€Å"He’s blackl† â€Å"Here we go,† Kling said. â€Å"That’s why they beat him up!† â€Å"Hang on, honey,† Sharyn said. Together, they huddled against the angry voices. At last, Kling said, â€Å"Wanna dance?† 278 About the Author Ed McBain is the only American to receive the Diamond Dagger, the British Crime Writers Association’s highest award. He also holds the Mystery Writers of America’s coveted Grand Master Award. His books have sold over one hundred million copies worldwide, ranging from his first bestselling novel, The Blackboard Jungle, to the recent bestseller Privileged Conversation, both written under his own name, Evan Hunter, which he used on his screenplay for Alfred Hitchcock’s The Birds. His most recent 87th Precinct novel was The Big Bad City. He lives in Connecticut with his wife, Dragica. 279 Copyright  © 2000 by Hui Corporation The right of Ed McBain to be identified as the Author of the Work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. First published in Great Britain in 2000 by Hodder and Stoughton First published in paperback in 2000 by Hodder and Stoughton A division of Hodder Headline A New English Library Paperback 10 98765432 I All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publisher, nor be otherwise circulated in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. All characters in this publication are fictitious and any resemblance to real persons, living or dead is purely coincidental. McBain, Ed, 1926 -The last dance I . 8yth Precinct (Imaginary place)-Fiction 2 . Detective and mystery stories I . Title 8i3-5’4tF] isbno 340 72806 XL Typeset by Palimpsest Book Production Limited, Polmont, Stirlingshire Printed and bound in Great Britain by Clays Ltd, St Ives pic Hodder and Stoughton A division of Hodder Headline 338 Euston Road London nwi 3BH This, yet another time, is for my wife— DRAGICA DIMITRIJEVIC-HUNTER winner of v the crime writers’association/ – cartier diamond dagger award ‘ A man with no enemies is found hanging in what appears to be a suicide. But Carella and company soon discover that, drugged and unconscious, he could not possibly have hanged himself. They are dealing with murder. The 1 investigation takes them into the politics and passions of a musical in preparation. Or rather’ two: one that happened half a century ago and one that is happening rjow †¦ ‘One oi the masters oi crime fiction.’ ? sunday telegraph – : ‘McBain is so good he ought to be arrested.’ ; publishers weekly † †¢-‘! ‘When it comes to the voices oi the city, McBaini the man with the golden ear.’ I new york times book review †¢ †¢ . ‘A virtuoso.’ Many of Ed McBain’s dazzling mysteries are New English Library paperbacks – the latest 87th Precinct stories are The Big Bad City and Nocturne. The Last Best Hope features Florida detective Matthew Hope. Have you read thern ajl? 0059†² NEW ENGLISH LIBRARY Fiction: Crime Author photograph by Dragica Dimitrijevic Cover Photographs Tony Stone Images ISBN 0-340-72806-X How to cite The Last Dance Chapter One, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Computer game free essay sample

Computer games are programs that enable a player to interact with a virtual game environment for entertainment and fun. There are many types of computer games available, ranging from traditional card games to more advanced video games such as role playing games and adventure games. In this chapter, we first discuss the different types of computer games. The architecture of computer games is also described. Finally, the programming environment that is used to build the computer games is discussed. 1. 1 Types of Computer Games Although computer games mainly provide entertainment and fun, it also improves hand/eye coordination and problem-solving skills. Each game has its own strategy, action and fantasy that make each game unique and interesting. Generally, we can classify computer games into the following types: card games, board games, puzzles, maze, fighting, action, adventure, role playing, strategy, sports and simulation games. However, the classification is a fuzzy concept, as many games are hybrids that fall into more than one class. For example, Doomcan be classified either as a maze game or an action game, while Monopoly can be classified as a board game or strategy game. The different types of computer games are briefly described as follows: Card Games They are computerized versions of traditional card games, or games which are essentially like card games in that they are primarily card-based (such as solitaire). Examples of card games include Blackjack , Bridge , Casino , Solitaire and Video Poker . Board Games They are adaptations of classic board games. Examples of board games include Chess , Checkers , Backgammon , Scrabble and Monopoly . Puzzles Puzzle games aim at figuring out of a solution, which often involves solving enigmas, navigation, learning how to use different tools, and the manipulating or reconfiguring of objects. Mastermind and Tetris are examples of puzzle games. Maze Maze games require the successful navigation of a maze. Mazes can be viewed in different ways. For example, they may appear in an overhead view (as in Pac-Man ), or first-person perspective (as in Doom ). Fighting Fighting games involve characters who fight usually hand-to-hand, in one-to-one combat situations. The fighters are usually represented as humans or animated characters. Fighting games include Street Fighter , Avengers and Body Slam . 2 Action Action games involve the human player shoots at a series of opponents or objects. Traditional action games include Space Invaders , Asteroids , etc. The recent popular action games are Doom , Quake , Descent , Half-Life and Unreal that involve the human player to control a character in a virtual environment to save the world from the forces of evil by using deadly force. Adventure Adventure games are different from action games. They emphasize more on the story, plot and puzzle solving rather than simply catching, shooting, capturing, or escaping. The human player must solve puzzles while adventuring. Characters are usually able to carry objects, such as weapons, keys, tools, etc. The settings of these games often evoke a particular historical time period and place, such as the middle ages or Arthurian England, or are thematically related to content-based types such as Science Fiction, Fantasy, or Espionage. Examples of adventure games include Adventure , Zork , Haunted House , Raiders of the Lost Ark and Superman . Role Playing In role playing games, players can take on different types of character. The character’s description may include specifics such as species, race, gender, and occupation, and may also include various abilities, such as strength and dexterity. In the virtual game world, the player goes on quests, fights monsters and improves the capability of the character on strength and magic. Example games include Diablo , Dungeons Dragons and Ultima . Many role playing games are also networked games that allow more than one player to play and interact in the same game world over the network such as the Internet or LAN (Local Area Network). Everquest and Ultima Online are networked role playing games. Strategy Strategy games emphasize the use of strategy as opposed to fast action or the use of quick reflexes. Traditional strategy games include Chess , Monopoly , and Othello . In recent popular strategy games such as Age of Empire , Warcraft and Close Combat , the player can control many combat units to do battle against one or more opponents. In these games, the player needs to resolve the problem of resource allocation, and organization of defenses and attacks. Sports Sports games are adaptations of existing real-world sports or variations of them. The most popular sports games include American Football , Baseball , Boxing , Fishing , Soccer , Tennis , Volleyball and Golf . Simulation There are two types of simulation games: management simulation and training simulation. Management simulation games refer to those games in which players must manage the use of limited resources to build or expand some kind of community, institution or empire. Example management simulation games include Railroad Tycoon ; 3 SimAnt , and SimCity . For training simulation games, it refers to games that attempt to simulate a realistic situation, for the purpose of training. Through the game simulation, it helps the player to develop some physical skills, such as steering as in driving and flight simulation games. Example training simulation games include Police Trainer , Gunship and Flight Unlimited . 1. 2 Game Design A computer game can be just a C application program. Figure 1. 1 shows the architecture of a typical computer game. It consists of the following components: Input, Game Logic, Graphics/Sound Support, Game Output and Networking. They are briefly described as follows: †¢ Input – Users interact with the game program through input devices. Common input devices include keyboard, mouse or joystick. †¢ Game Logic – It implements the game logic or game code that handles most of the basic mechanics of game. Generally, before the game logic is developed, the story line on how the game is played and how the players should interact should be designed. Simple physics, networking support and animations should be planned. In some advanced games, artificial intelligence (AI) and collision detection are also implemented in this step. †¢ Graphics Rendering Engine It has complicated code to efficiently identify and render the game objects and background from a two-dimensional (3-D) model of the environment. It supports transformation of objects that are moved, rotated and scaled when required. †¢ Graphics/Sound Drivers – The graphics drivers receive requests from the rendering engine to the graphics library using APIs. Windows APIs and Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) provide two-dimensional (2-D) graphics support for PCs. For supporting both 2-D and 3-D graphics, OpenGL and DirectX are the two most popular graphics libraries. DirectX also provides libraries for music and sound support. †¢ Game Output – The generated 2-D or 3-D graphics is output to the display. The generated sound effect or music is output to the sound card. †¢ Networking It provides networking protocol support that allows several users in remote locations to play and interact in the same game environment. In a networked game environment, a server is needed to maintain information on which the virtual game world is supporting, communicates with game clients that are used by players to provide them with information about the shared environment. The server also needs to synchronize the information, and maintain the consistent scenes of the virtual game world among the networked clients. When a game program begins execution, it should first initialize the memory, loads images and sound files, starts the graphics and set up variables such as scores. After initialization, the game logic then starts. When the game session ends, housekeeping is also needed to update sound effects, update and display scores, update data structures, etc. The user can end this session or go back to the game logic to start the game again. 4 Figure 1. 1: Computer game architecture. 1. 3 Story Line To design a successful computer game, it is important to have a good story line, together with good 2-D and 3-D graphics, and sound effects to make the computer game seem realistic. The story line should be first developed before we start developing a game. To develop a story line, we need to determine the following: †¢ The type of the game – We need to classify the nature of the game into one of the categories that we have discussed in Section 1. 1. Different types of game have different requirements, for example, role playing games requires realism in graphics and sound effects, whereas some strategy games emphasize on strategy rather than realism, and simplified display would be enough for such games. †¢ The goal of the game – We need to tell the player what to do to succeed in the game. In a space war game, the goal is to shoot down as many space invaders as possible. In a fighting game, the goal is to defeat or kill the opponent. †¢ The player’s performance in the game – We need to decide how to rate the players for their performance. This should indicate how close they have achieved the goal of the game. In general, we use a total score as a player’s performance indicator. In addition, when the player has achieved the goal, we also need to determine how to reward the player. †¢ The rules of the game – We need to tell the players how to play the game. Instructions on how to operate the keyboard or mouse in order to play the game should be explained. 1. 4 Computer Graphics and Sound Effects Visual effects of graphics and special sound effects are important to help establish the story line and provide the illustrations that make the player to feel part of the game. Many simple games rely only on 2-D graphics, which draws points, lines, and filled shapes such as rectangle and polygons in a plane. Graphics functions provided from Windows API (application Programming Interface) or Microsoft Foundation Class (MFC) library on Windows environment support 2-D graphics. Advanced computer games often require to handle 3-D objects. Microsoft DirectX supports advanced 3-D graphics on Windows platform. Instead of just supporting the Windows platform, OpenGL supports 2-D and 3- D graphics on both Unix and Windows environment. Apart from 2-D and 3-D graphics, image display and manipulation is another important technique for game development. In many games, we can use a scanner to digitize pictures into images and used them as graphical elements in the display. We can also manipulate the images through scaling and rotation. Animation of images is another 5 popular technique employed in many games. Windows API and MFC library provides functions for image display and manipulation. Sound is another important element that can make a computer game look realistic. Windows and MFC library only support the generation of only one tone at a time. However, with an optional sound card, most computer games can generate more complex sound effects. To support game development, Microsoft DirectX provides the DirectX Audio subsystem that supports music and stereo sound effects. OpenGL library does not provide any support for sound effects. In this section, we briefly review some of the graphics libraries including Windows API, MFC library, DirectX and OpenGL. Windows API and MFC Library Windows is a very important subsystem in Microsofts operating system. It makes Microsofts 32 bit Windows API available to application programs. Windows API contains functions for Graphics Device Interface (GDI) that allows users to draw and write in a window. The GDI functions let users display graphics in Windows using a device context object such as a display or a printer. Device context is designed to isolate a Windows program from the physical output device, so that when you call GDI functions for all graphics output, it accesses the specific device driver. GDI provides vector drawing functions that can draw graphical objects such as lines, rectangles, ellipses and polygons; text output functions to display text in a window; bitmap manipulation functions to display and manipulate images; and palette management functions to exploit the colors. MFC library provides a set of functions to control text and graphics output. It is object- oriented and the key class is the CDC class that defines a class of device context objects. The CDC object provides member functions for working with a device context. Similar to Windows GDI, the member functions provide operations to support drawing of lines, simple shapes, ellipses and polygons, drawing of text and working with fonts, colors and palettes. In addition, member functions are also provided for working with viewport, working with regions, mapping and clipping. DirectX The goal of DirectX is to make Microsoft Windows a desirable platform for game development. It aims at shifting the burden of hardware support from the game developers to the hardware manufacturers, who are more qualified to write drivers for their products than the game developers. However, DirectX is not a game-creation package. It only aids in the development of applications through the use of APIs designed to interface directly with the computer’s hardware. If the hardware is equipped with DirectX drivers, access can be granted to the accelerated functions, which that device provides. If no accelerated functions exist, DirectX will emulate them. Hence, the programmer can continue to work on a consistent interface without worrying about things such as hardware features. If a feature does not exist on the card, it is likely that the feature will work through DirectX’s emulation functions. 6 Thus, DirectX is a set of low-level application programming interfaces for creating games and other high-performance multimedia applications. It includes support for 2-D and 3-D graphics, sound effects and music, input devices, and support for networked applications such as multiplayer games. DirectX 8 has the following major components: †¢ DirectX Graphics It is a complete 3-D graphics system. †¢ DirectX Audio It includes sound and music systems that provides a complete system for implementing a dynamic soundtrack. †¢ DirectPlay It is a set of tools that simplify communications across the networks, the Internet or modems. The tools allow game players to find game sessions easily to help manage the flow between servers and players. †¢ DirectInput It provides the game developer with an interface to myriad input devices, such as keyboards, mouse and joysticks. OpenGL OpenGL was developed by Silicon Graphics Inc. (SGI) as a multi-purpose, platform- independent graphics API. The development of OpenGL has been overseen by the OpenGL Architecture Review Board (ARB), which is made up of major graphics vendors and manuafacturers since 1992. ARB is responsible for establishing and maintaining the OpenGL specification. The current release of OpenGL is at version 1. 3. Unlike DirectX which is now at its eighth version, the OpenGL specification is quite stable which does not get updated often. OpenGL is a collection of several hundred functions providing access to all the features offered by the graphics hardware. This includes 2-D image scaling, rendering 3-D objects including spheres, cylinders, and disks, coloring, lighting, blending, and so on. The API is a powerful, low-level rendering and modeling software library available on all major platforms. It is designed for use in any graphics applications, from games to modeling to Computer Aided Design (CAD). Many computer games such as Quake 3 have used OpenGL for their core graphics-rendering engines. Under Windows environment, OpenGL provides an alternative to using the Graphics Device Interface (GDI). GDI is designed to make the graphics hardware entirely invisible to Windows programmers. However, the layers of abstraction that help programmers avoid dealing with device-specific issues have caused applications lacking the speed required for games. In OpenGL, GDI can be bypassed entirely. OpenGL API can access directly with graphics hardware. OpenGL does not directly support any form of windowing menus or input. The OpenGL Utility Toolkit (GLUT) is a set of support libraries available to provide basic functionality in many areas, while remaining platform independent. For instance, GLUT- based applications can be easily ported from Windows to Unix. GLUT is easy to use and learn. Although it does not provide all the functionality that the operating system offers, it works well for simple applications. 7 1. 5 Programming Environment Her, we intend to use computer games as programming examples to illustrate the different concepts in C such as branching, looping, functions, arrays, strings, structures and file I/O. Advanced computer games such as role playing games, adventure games and simulation games require complex 3-D graphics to make the virtual game world realistic. As such, only traditional, simple games that only require simple 2-D graphics such as drawing lines, rectangles and polygons are discussed. Windows API, MFC library and DirectX are only available in Windows platform, while OpenGL is an open source that can be available in both Windows and Unix platforms. Here, we have chosen OpenGL and GLUT as the graphics driver for supporting different 2-D and 3-D graphics API for the developed game programs. Microsoft’s Visual C/C++ is used for the development of the game programs in the Windows environment. OpenGL and GLUT are required to be installed within the Microsoft’s Visual C/C++ environment. We will also discuss the installation of OpenGL and GLUT for Microsofts Visual C/C++. 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